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Westwood Works 1903-2003

The Westwood Works Culture



The following statements of business policy were made by Baker Perkins' senior managers up to 85 years ago but are arguably as relevant today.

"Experience has proved that a business cannot stand still; it either goes forwards or backwards. When we cease to expand, we begin to go downhill." - A.I. Baker

"It is the big responsibility of the shareholders to select a sound directorate and it is the first duty of the Management to see that the Business is properly manned - there should be no square pegs in round holes, but the responsibility does not end here. Sufficient attention has to be given to training successors in all branches of the Business and in this connection it is well to remember that successors must be better at their jobs than their predecessors if the Business is to continues on or to improve upon its present relative position."- Barton Baker

"I must say I don't think the profits of this Company will ever be such as to pay the Shareholders 19% because we have other things to do with our money when we get anywhere near that stage. We have always said, and still say it, that there is a limit to the profits which can accrue to the capitalist and shareholder, and before that could come about the workers would be entitled to a further partition of such profits." - Josh Booth

"The writer would like to stress the vital nature of the Outdoor Services and some other Sections of the Business by attempting to view the Firm entirely form the point of view of the customer - a valuable experiment at all times. What are the "points of contact" between the Firm and the Customer? In general there are but five:

It is imperative if the Company's Sales are to increase (or be maintained) that these five points of contact must be apparently and actually as near 100% efficient as is humanly possible. The customer does not mind if his gears are cut on a "Sunderland" or a "Fellows", but he does want them to be silent; he does not mind if half of the "user" cards are lost but he does expect prompt and businesslike attention." - Barton Baker

The point that the writer wishes to make is, of course, that the Outdoor Construction Service is a Sales force, in the main a money earning factor as opposed to a money saving factor. A force that by inefficiency can discount entirely the work of the Sales department, a force that by good service can enormously assist in making the Firm's position unassailable."- Barton Baker

"The goal that the sales department has in view is the design of products which are indispensible to the customer in view of their economic and organising value, but produts which also provide Baker Perkins with the maximum employment which can be classed in the category of most highly prized articles. In fact products which prove most remunerative to the client and to the Company" - Barton Baker.

Much has been made throughout this website of the "unique" culture which permeated Westwood Works and the "family" feeling which this engendered. Inevitably this originated from the particular management philosophy of the founders. Clear and strong leadership supported by a well-motivated workforce was seen to be fundamental to commercial success. The proof of this was seen in the incredibly rapid recovery and rebuilding of Westwood Works after the Great Fire of 1922 and in the remarkable performance of the Company during the dark days of World War Two. In his book, "The History of Baker Perkins", written in 1968, Augustus Muir observed:

"The democratic atmosphere, which had been so strong among both management and men at Willesden, continued to be very much alive after the amalgamation with the Perkins factory at Peterborough. The Quaker philosophy of the Bakers and indeed of many of their employees thus became part of the Baker Perkins tradition.

One manifestation of this spirit can be seen in the number of consultative bodies which have been formed. A Works Committee set up at Willesden as long ago as the 1914 War, continued to exist after amalgamation and there has been a Staff Committee at Westwood since 1938. In 1954, a special Forum was established for the exchange of ideas between the management and advisory bodies.

The company co-operated in 1967 with the Amalgamated Engineering Union in courses for shop stewards which were conducted in the company's time. The view of the directors was that the more shop stewards knew about recognised negotiating procedure, the less time would be wasted on the shop floor and elsewhere in fruitless argument. At Westwood alone, eleven different unions are represented and there are at least thirty shop stewards. Many methods were used to show the workpeople how the firm's money was spent. The shareholders are given as full information as possible about the activities of the company, and in presenting information, which was once regarded as sacrosanct, Baker Perkins have been substantially ahead of many of the demands of the most recent Companies Act "

Other sections of this website deal with some of the "motivational" aspects of life at Westwood first rate training; good conditions of employment; well established consultation practices; generous pension benefits; management support for leisure time activities, charitable work and work in the local community; the Sports Club; Westwood Works Musical Society; on-site facilities; etc. together with a readiness to embrace the latest appropriate technologies and management thinking. Driving this, an all pervading management style which, while never lax always demanding was aimed at getting the best out of people, allowing them to achieve their full potential regardless of skill level and background.

That such motivation was real will readily be seen in the number of VIPs visiting the company over the years to see the end-results and in the number of employees honoured at the Long Service Presentations held each year. The strong feeling of "belonging to a family" still remains with ex-employees long after they have either retired or have moved on to other jobs. Evidence of this can be found in the activities of the Retired Members Section and in the many contributions posted in this website's Guestbook.

In the context of the above, it is interesting to note that in 1967 - described as a fairly typical year - for every penny that went to provide dividends for stockholders in Baker Perkins Holdings, twenty-one pence were paid out in wages, salaries and employee benefits.

Fact or just Theory?

In 1927, halfway between the merger of the two companies and the "Great Trek" from Willesden to Peterborough, F.C. Ihlee agreed that Barton Baker (son of Philip Baker) should carry out - at the age of 23 - an in-depth review of the whole of the newly-merged business. The report, commissioned by F.C. Ihlee, aimed also to put under critical review the actual operation of the organisation as compared with how the management intended that it function The investigation took approximately 18 months and was published in 1928 as a nearly 300 page report entitled "Baker Perkins Dissected". In a Foreword to the work, F.C. Ihlee observed:

"The work undertaken by Mr. B.D. Baker took its origin in the desire to ascertain by practical trial how far the intelligent aspirant to the more advanced openings in a business might be assisted to qualify in a short time by an unrestricted study of the business as a whole. Incidentally it was hoped that these studies would tend to disclose the particular employment for which talents possessed by the student cause him to be especially adapted and that the considerable time and labour employed in their crystallisation in the form of a written record might provide a useful contribution to the business education of others in view of the impracticability of that complete and leisured tuition which in the abstract would be so desirable for all beginners."

It is of course impractical to reproduce more than a few paragraphs of this study on these websites but there are some extracts which will serve to reinforce the idea that management thinking at Baker Perkins was at least in harmony, if not ahead, of the best management theory of the time. Indeed, much of what was said is arguably still of relevance to the present generation of managers in this country and elsewhere.

Relations Towards Employees

After a preamble covering some thoughts about inherent attitudes of employers and employees, Barton Baker quoted Mr F.C. Ihlee on the subject:

"Before attempting to review the problem of establishing satisfactory relations between employers and employed, let us consider the choice of methods open to us. There are indeed only two: that of force and that of reason. The way of force is, in the last resort, that hitherto universally employed and can but lead to industrial strife as soon as bad times do not permit of plenty for all. Even in prosperous times, the temptation to exploit a situation often proves too strong where the ultimate arbiter resorted to is force. Methods of force are nearly always overlaid with a veneer of reason and arbitral and/or constitutional proceedings are frequently carried to a high state of development, tending to obscure the fact that force is, after all, the basic agency relied on. The only choice possible for a considered attack on our problem is in favour of the reasoned method, since the other is the one we shall be forced back upon automatically if we fail".

"The reasoned solution calls for accurate knowledge of the business (or industry) to be attacked, honesty of purpose and the belief in a square deal on the part of both parties concerned. The first of these requirements is a question of education the second we shall nearly always get where the third exists. The average human being can be relied on to come very near his best sustained effort if the incentive is adequate and his income is assured. It is then his business to make provision for old age, so long as he is guaranteed against the effects of illness or accident".

Provided that the principle of limiting the return on Capital is adopted on an equitable basis (which is the sacrifice which the Employer is called upon to make in return for the confidence referred to above), the conditions set out in the last paragraph should be capable of realisation. It is, of course, appreciated that no golden rule can be evolved defining the exact limitation to be imposed on Capital as regards its participation in profits, there are many considerations which will need careful adjustment in each given case before a fair return can be agreed but, given the right atmosphere, there is no insuperable difficulty about arriving at a fair rate by negotiation with the other party. It is the frank acceptance of this principle by the Employer that will perform the apparent miracle of creating the right spirit".

"It is not the purpose of these notes to deal with the 1001 problems of detail, the solution of which alone can result in a going concern along the lines indicated. They are, however, only details and will yield to treatment without undue difficulty when attacked in the new circumstances that would be created under the revolutionary outlook indicated. Even Unions and their supposedly intractable rules are details and will adapt themselves to a new situation. Unions exist to better the lot of their members they will not be allowed to stand in the way of such betterment indefinitely".

"So long as in any of our acts, individually or collectively, we do not proceed on the lines of reason which are the lines of equity we identify ourselves with the methods of force. I have no right to more than a fair (equitable - reasoned) return on any money I put into a business and so long as I make no attempt to put my unearned income on to a reasoned basis by sharing equitably with those others who have helped too make these earnings possible, I am an opportunist in the last resort an exploiter of force and I can make no claim to consider the rights of my fellow workers equitably. I have, therefore, no right to expect them to repose that unshakeable confidence in me which is admittedly indispensable to a stable and satisfactory relationship".

Barton Baker went on to say:

"In Baker Perkins no effort is spared to make the relationships between the employers and employed both cordial and straightforward. The manual workers form Shop Committees which are encouraged to bring before the Management any grievances that may be held by the men, and meetings occur between the Management and the Shop Committees at which these grievances are discussed., any suggestions carefully considered and business arrangements made on the notice of either Management or men. The Shop Committees are elected by the men, no restrictions being imposed as to who may be a member".

"The question of remuneration is one which concerns these relations very closely. Speaking generally, one feels that the wages and salaries paid by Baker Perkins give a happy example of justice tempered with generosity".

In a later part of his report, Mr Baker took some 15 pages to spell out the theory and practice adopted in the remuneration of the three groups involved The Owner Group; the Management Group and the Worker Group.

That these principles outlined above were also shared by other layers of management is evidenced by a quote from Josh Booth, Production Director, who, on the subject of the limits to returns on capital said:

"I must say I don't think the profits of this Company will ever be such as to pay the shareholders 19% because we have other things to do with our money when we get anywhere near that stage. We have always said, and still say it, that there is a limit to the profits which can accrue to the capitalist and shareholder, and before that could come about the workers would be entitled to a further partition of such profits."

Tea and Sympathy

From all the 300-odd pages of "Baker Perkins Dissected", one short and seemingly trivial passage stood out for this website author in that, particularly in the strength of the language used, it clearly illustrated the depth to which members of the Baker family espoused the doctrine of fairness to all:
"Perhaps the most objectionable feature (in principle) observed in the whole of the Peterborough working arrangements is the rule which permits certain offices to have afternoon tea whilst to others it is forbidden. It is difficult to say whether the inconsistency or the lack of consideration for the feelings of all concerned here displayed is the more surprising blemish. The writer (Barton Baker) is inclined to favour the practice of permitting afternoon tea. Personally he regards tea as an unnecessary meal but realises that others (in particular visitors to Westwood) are entitled to the opposite view. He does, however, think that it is important that if permission to have tea is given to some it should be given to all."

Recruitment and Training

There are many references on this Website to the importance placed on the level of high-quality Training at Westwood Works (See "Training at Westwood Works"). Barton Baker also touched on this subject:

"It is the first duty of the Management to see that the Business is properly manned there should be no square pegs in round holes but the responsibility does not end here. Sufficient attention has to be given to training successors in all branches of the Business and in this connection it is well to remember that successors must be better at their jobs than their predecessors if the Business is to continue to improve upon its present relative position".

The Pension Scheme

The Baker Perkins Pension Scheme was considered by many employees to be one of the best of its type available and has proved to be a considerable incentive. The very large number of long serving employees perhaps testifies to this. (See Long Service Presentations). In the light of the discussions currently taking place in the UK at the start of the 21st Century, the following extract from Barton Baker's Report is of interest:

(Note: This was written in 1928) - "For some years the Company has made a practice of making a substantial annual contribution from undivided profits to the creation of an adequate Pension Fund. The income from this Fund, which remains for the present in the Business, is applied to the relief of necessitous cases arising out of incapacity for work or death at the discretion of the Production Committee under tentative direction from the Boards. The writer's (Barton Baker's) view is that when the pension scheme proper comes to be set up it should be a contributory scheme of the "Money Purchase" variety with contributions from the Company and employees of a fixed percentage on pay or an option for the latter to contribute more up to a certain limit. (The Company's contribution must be, in some measure, dependent on profits except insofar as they are covered by other security).

The considerations involved are important. The existence of a properly constituted Pension scheme ensures a feeling of permanence, facilitates the discharge of old employees who can no longer attain the high standard of efficiency that is essential and reduces the labour turnover in the established grades. It is certainly desirable that pensions should be as large as possible which argues very strongly for a contributory scheme, which incidentally encourages saving - a good thing at all times and its independence is a point upon which the writer puts considerable value".

Ralph Batson, responsible for administering the Pension Scheme for many years remembers:

"The Company for many years paid ex-gratia pensions on retirement but it was not found possible for some years to set up what was described above as “a properly constituted Pension Scheme”. It was in contemplation at the outbreak of WW2 but was not able to be implemented until after the War.

In 1949, the Board of Directors decided to introduce contributory pension schemes for all employees on an average salary basis; that is to say, contributions and benefits were related to the salaries that applied in each year of present and future service. The benefits were built up year by year according to the member’s salary in each year. At the start, past service was recognised at approximately half the rate of future service provision. Life Assurance benefits of one year’s salary was also provided. The starting date was 30th November 1949.

Over the next thirty-five years, the scheme was extended to cover all of the UK Group Companies and improvements were also made. Past service entitlements were increased to the same rate as future service, Life Assurance cover was increased and widows’ pensions on death after retirement were introduced. Finally, the basis of pension provision was changed from average salary to a final salary formula.

The Scheme in Action

It is worth extracting the key points from “The Baker Perkins Group Pension and Life Assurance Scheme for Employees in the United Kingdom – Members Explanatory Booklet, April 1979”:

The Group Scheme provided:

The object of the Group Scheme was to provide a Company pension which, when added to the State pension, provided a retirement income related to length of service and final pensionable salary. There was also the right to exchange part of the pension for a cash lump sum on retiring. The Scheme gave the protection of life assurance cover during a normal working lifetime and provided a widow’s pension after the employee had retired. The Scheme was also designed to be contracted-out of the earnings related part of the State Pension Scheme (the Additional Component).

Control of the Group Scheme was vested in the Trustees, some of whom were appointed by the Company and some elected by the contributing members. The Pension Fund was entirely separate from the Company funds and once the Company and the members had contributed, such contributions could only be used for the benefit of the members.

Full-time employees joined the scheme on the 6th April following the day that they started work for the Company, or on their 20th birthday, whichever was the later. The employee was also entitled, of course, to receive a State Pension on retirement. From April 1978, this was provided under two headings:

Because the Group Scheme was considered to provide benefits generally better than the statutory requirements, members of the Scheme were contracted-out of the Additional Component with a guarantee that the pension received wound in all circumstances be not less than the equivalent of the additional component that would have been earned had the member not been contracted-out. This was known as the Guaranteed Minimum Pension (GMP). This GMP was increased, if necessary, so that it was not less than 1/80th of the member’s final pensionable salary for each year that the member remained in the Scheme after April 1978.

The Scheme allowed for the provision of a widow’s pension equal to half the member’s own GMP (before the deduction of any pension that may have been given up for a cash benefit – see below). This was to be increased, if necessary, so that it was not less than 1/60th of the final pensionable salary on which the member’s GMP was based.

The Scheme also allowed the member to opt to receive a tax-free lump sum instead of part of his/her pension. The maximum cash received was 3/80ths of final remuneration or of final pensionable salary (whichever was the greater) for each year of service with the company, with a maximum of 40 years counting. The amount of pension given up to obtain a tax-free lump sum depended on the age of retirement. There were restrictions in place to ensure that the remaining pension from the Group Scheme was not less than GMP.

Early retirement at own or Company’s request was allowed for, with an immediate pension payable. A compensatory reduction in pension received could be applied depending on the reasons for requesting early retirement.

Members’ contributions were 5% of pensionable salary up to the upper earnings limit and 8% of pensionable salary above the upper earnings limit and up to three times national average earnings. In calculating tax relief, the contribution was first deducted from pay, with tax being calculated on the remainder – ensuring that tax relief was enjoyed on each contribution at the time it was paid. The Company paid the balance of the cost.

The Pension received was the best of:

Provision was made for:

Death in Service benefit was a lump sum equal to three times pensionable salary, and a return of all the contributions paid into the Scheme. In the case of a married man, part of the lump sum was used to set up the appropriate widow’s GMP.

When paying pensions to those members retiring after normal retirement age:

An enhanced scheme was in place for Executives, giving a pension based on basic salary at retirement averaged over the best three consecutive years in the last ten before that date.

The Management's commitment to the Pension Scheme continued through the period of high inflation and pay restraint of the mid '70s, the Chairman's statement in the 1977 Annual report declaring:

"The directors have been particularly concerned about the effects of continuing high rates of inflation upon the value of United Kingdom pensions being paid, despite the modest annual increases which are now regularly made under the United Kingdom group scheme. Although, under the 'pay restraint' policy, it was not possible to make any improvements to the company pension scheme beyond those necessary for contracting out of the new state scheme, it was permissible to improve pensions already being paid to retired employees in the United Kingdom. The directors therefore authorised in March a special payment of 400,000 to the pension scheme trustees to enable them to provide a measure of additional improvement to those pensioners who retired before December 1976. The payment has been charged in full against the profits of the year".

In January 1960, a scheme was in place to compensate "Full-time Senior Employees aged more than 21 years and not more than 64 years if male and 59 years if female who were members of the 1963 Pension and Life Assurance Scheme for Executives (see - The Pension Scheme above)", for loss of earnings in cases of long-term incapacity due to sickness or accident. It allowed for a benefit of 50% of salary to be made payable to a Member after twelve months' continuous absence and continuing during such time as Incapacity continued up to the Member's normal retirement date.

"Incapacity" was defined as a Member being totally incapacitated through injury nor illness from following his/her occupation. The whole cost of the Scheme was borne by the employer, benefits being paid monthly and being increased at a rate of 2 1/2% per annum compounded annually.

Holiday Pay

The discussions between Management and the Works Committee on the introduction of Paid Holidays appear to have followed the same amicable pattern as previously. In August 1936, a proposal was sent to the Management by the Works Committee and a reply was received from Mr. F.C. Ihlee at the end of September. The wording of Mr Ihlee's reply is interesting as it supports many of the philosophic statements made above. It should also be noted that this agreement was made well in advance of any National agreement on paid holidays.

Dear Sirs,

The management has given careful consideration to your letter of the 14th August.

1) The efforts of the employees and those of their Committee towards assisting those of the Management to improve results always have been and are much appreciated. The fact that they are based upon an enlightened view of the mutual advantages to be obtained directly from close collaboration enhances their value particularly in so far as they enable the Company to hold its own in competition whilst tending towards better earnings and working conditions for the men.

2) The desirability of a holiday free from financial cares may be conceded without reserve but in considering the case of the salaried members of staff it must be borne in mind that they earn their holidays amply by not confining their working hours to a specified standard and by working overtime as required without addition to their emoluments.

Mr Ihlee then went on to say that the Management agreed to grant free holidays for "all who have been on the Company's payroll since the first of January of the previous year ---------------- the maximum of one week will be for whatever hours constitute the Standard Week for the time being."

The letter ended with:

"The principle which the Directors adhere to in entering into this agreement is, of course, that nothing can be undertaken that adversely affects competitive efficiency but that, subject to this proviso, employees concerned directly in production are willingly admitted to the fruits of the prosperity which they helped to achieve. It is the over-riding importance of this principle which forbids putting the concession into exact terms, but it will give some indication of its nature to state that, in the existing ratio of capital to volume of business done and in present conditions generally, the Directors would consider payment of the full week's basic wage to be perhaps possible for years equivalent to 1935, but that none could be justified when published net results did not come up to 60,000."

Despite the severe pressures on production imposed by the immediate post-war years, the Company was still in discussions with the workforce about improving holiday entitlement. The Management had been in discussion with the Works Committee on the subject of the conditions under which it would be possible to grant a second week's holiday in 1947.

A letter to the employees, signed by G. Lewis, director and works manager, and F.P. Maywood, chairman of the Works Committee, dated September 20th 1946, set out the Company's response.

"The Company now has on its books by far the biggest head of orders in its history and is faced by the urgent national problem of helping the export drive to the greatest possible extent and, at the same time, re-equipping industry at home. Delays on jobs in course of construction occur only too frequently and severely handicap us. They are generally due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining certain materials and supplies, and this state of affairs will continue for some time, nevertheless, greatly increased production is vital and present output falls far short of what is needed. It is only possible for the Company to continue to grant the extra week's holiday if it can feel assured that production will improve.

After careful discussion with the Works Committee, and at the latter's specific request, the Management has agreed to grant the second week's holiday for Summer 1947 on the assurance of the Works Committee that we can rely on the wholehearted support of the Pay Roll employees in the urgent question of increased production, both by working overtime when necessary and by striving to increase the output per hour.

The Management and Works Committee would like to see the two weeks annual holiday established as standard practice, but the Management is not ready to make any pronouncement for 1948 other than to say that it will look with favour on an application for a second week in 1948 if the response to the appeal for additional production from now until July 1947 is satisfactory.

The Management feels bound to impose one condition, and reserves the right to cancel the second week's holiday for 1947 for the whole or part of the Works if any unofficial or illegal stoppages of work occur in any part of the factory before the holiday is due to commence

Shorter Working Hours

A request for a change in working hours from 47 to 45 (i.e 47 hours pay for five days of nine hours) was dealt with in a similar way in September 1936. This initiative was also well in advance of similar moves in other sectors of industry.

Mr F.C. Ihlee:-

"The Directors have come to the definite conclusion that a 45 hour week in five days is the shortest that can be justified whilst the National Standard is a 47 hour week. They remain as anxious as ever to secure for the men in these Works the advantages which they believe attach to a five-day week and to encourage its general adoption by practical example. They must, however, avoid the risks of assuming a burden greater than may prove bearable".

(NOTE: Up until January 1964, the Company worked a 44 hour week, followed some years later by a reduction to 40 hours A further reduction to 39 hours came in November 1981 and in March 1991 the working week was reduced again to 37 hours, to bring it in line with Staff hours. The hours worked by the Night Shift were somewhat different details can be found in The Night Shift).

Company employees on National Service

The Company was careful to consider the circumstances of its employees at all times. When, after the end of WW2 National Service was introduced, special arrangements were made within the Baker Perkins Pensions and Life Assurance Schemes to ensure that those employees who were called-up were not disadvantaged. In 1951, the following concessions were added to the Rules of the Schemes:

The "Forum"

Continuing the long history of consultation between management and employees which had begun with the setting up of a Works Committee at Willesden in June 1918, it was considered in 1954 that a new body – "The Forum" – should be constituted with the objective of providing a means of communication between all of the representative bodies:

Other Relevant Initiatives

The WP&P Sick Fund

This booklet dates from between 1904 (when WP&P moved to Peterborough from London), and 1914, when the Company changed its name to Perkins Engineers. The "Rules and Regulations" contains some fascinating detail:

"Each member to contribute Sixpence per week, whereby he will be entitled to receive in cases of sickness, or accident, Twelve Shillings for eight weeks followed by Six Shillings for six weeks".

"Two members residing nearest to a Sick member shall visit him not later then 10pm. Each visiting member will call once in each week .................... If neglecting the above, the visiting members to be fined Sixpence for each omission".

"No sick member shall be absent from home under any pretence after 8 o'clock pm form the 1st of April to the 1st of October, and 6 o'clock pm during the other months of the year, and for the first breach of this Rule to be fined One Shilling, and for the second to be debarred from further benefits for such a period as may be approved by the Committee".

The Company Suggestion Scheme

In the early 1960s, in an attempt to motivate the employees to help improve the efficiency of the manufacturing operation, the Company introduced a Suggestion Scheme. A relatively unique approach was used, one heavily relying on humour to motivate the work-force to participate. A copy of the relevant booklet can be seen here. In November 1964, George Thorogood, a wood machinist at Baker Perkins Ltd, won the till then largest ever prize of £100. His idea, a jig for drilling the wooden slats for bread cooler trays, reduced production time from a whole day to two hours. George's achievement was topped in April 1967 by Brian Pidcock from Bedewell who won £120 for ideas to improve the manufacture of a cam used in bakery equipment.

The Baker Perkins Holdings Share Savings Scheme

In November 1981, Baker Perkins Holdings introduced a Share Savings Scheme. Open to all full-time employees with at least two years' continuous service, the employee had first to agree to enter a five years SAYE (Save As You Earn) contract with the Department of National Savings with a monthly contribution of not less than £10 or more then £50. The Rules of the Scheme stated:

"You will then be granted an option to acquire ordinary shares in the Company at a price which will normally be approximately 90% of their market price on the day before you were invited to join the Scheme. The number of shares covered by the option will reflect the total of your SAYE contributions plus the tax-free bonus which is payable under the SAYE contract the end of the five year savings period. Your option will not normally be exercisable therefore until five years after the time you start saving".

Baker Perkins Scholarships

The Staff Handbook of February 1961 stated:

"The sons and daughters of employees who have been awarded a state or country scholarship to go on to a university become eligible for a grant from the Company. To be eligible, the student must be about to enter on a full time degree course at a university, a college of university standing or a college of advanced technology (other then Peterborough Technical College).The grant is a once-for-all lump sum payment, graduated according to the needs of each case. Notices are posted each summer inviting applications"

Sharing the Credit

It is perhaps fitting to return to Augustus Muir for another quote on this subject to help illustrate that this enlightened attitude came not only from the Perkins side of the business (as represented by F.C. Ihlee) but also from the Baker "stream":

"When the founder of the business (Joseph Baker) died in 1892, a contemporary article spoke of his 'sturdy integrity and large-hearted charity for which the Quakers are renowned all over the world.' One who had joined the firm in those early days has told of Joseph Baker's pleasure in coming into personal contact with his men; he looked upon them as one great family and on Fridays (as an employee said) he 'insisted on paying us himself, coming to each of us with a happy smile and a kindly word as he handed out our pay-tins.'

See also:

The Profit Sharing Scheme
The Great Fire After the Great Fire
Outings Outing to the British Empire Exhibition, Wembley - 1924
Training at Westwood Works Developing people
Unions at Westwood Works

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